Electricity


Concerns about power disruptions and communications shut downs
in 2012 are frightening enough but most people do not realize
that a melt down of the power grid can affect public water
systems.

“When I was young, no one gave much thought to having drinking water available. There was no bottled water as we know it and little concern for the quality of water coming from our taps. Gradually we have been indoctrinated into relying on bottled water and questioning the quality of water everywhere and in most cases for good reasons.

Many are aware of potential problems of having access to potable water. Hurricane Katrina and other natural disasters have heightened our awareness of this potential problem. However, most people are not aware of the impact of power outages on public water systems. We have a false sense of security about our ability to get the power back on fast.

This article will hopefully provide a reality check.

“It sounds ridiculous. Surely the sun couldn’t create so profound a disaster on Earth. Yet an extraordinary report funded by NASA and issued by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in January this year claims it could do just that.”

“The projections of just how catastrophic make chilling reading. “We’re moving closer and closer to the edge of a possible disaster,” says Daniel Baker, a space weather expert based at the University of Colorado in Boulder, and chair of the NAS committee responsible for the report.”

“The second problem is the grid’s interdependence with the systems that support our lives: water and sewage treatment, supermarket delivery infrastructures, power station controls, financial markets and many others all rely on electricity. Put the two together, and it is clear that a repeat of the Carrington event could produce a catastrophe the likes of which the world has never seen. “It’s just the opposite of how we usually think of natural disasters,” says John Kappenman, a power industry analyst with the Metatech Corporation of Goleta, California, and an advisor to the NAS committee that produced the report. “Usually the less developed regions of the world are most vulnerable, not the highly sophisticated technological regions.”

According to the NAS report, a severe space weather event in the US could induce ground currents that would knock out 300 key transformers within about 90 seconds, cutting off the power for more than 130 million people (see map). From that moment, the clock is ticking for America.

First to go – immediately for some people – is drinkable water. Anyone living in a high-rise apartment, where water has to be pumped to reach them, would be cut off straight away. For the rest, drinking water will still come through the taps for maybe half a day. With no electricity to pump water from reservoirs, there is no more after that.””….Read more

As reported earlier on this blog, solar activity should peak in the
year 2012. NASA and other scientists are predicting increased solar
flares and recently discovered a large breach in the Earth’s magnetic
fields. There will be an increased chance for disruptions in communication
devices and electrical power. In 1989 6 million people lost power when
an increase in solar activity caused a surge.

Now is the time to begin preparing for power outages. Here is an article
explaining a simple, inexpensive way to have electrical power during an
outage.

“Survival AC Power 101”

“This article will explain how you can have AC electrical power for days if your power goes out. It also will provide a means to start your car if the car battery is not functioning. This solution will not run all your household needs but can provide light and power for small appliances.
Here is what you will need:

1. Power inverter. This converts DC current from a battery to AC current that your appliances need. Power inverters come in many sizes from low wattage such as 100 up to thousands of watts. Pick the size you need based on your budget and power requirements. Some appliances or tools require more watts and they will also drain the battery power source faster. Power inverters can be purchased at many stores such as Home Depot, Harbor Freight, Advance Auto, Walmart and many other stores.

2. Automotive battery jump start unit. This is a self contained battery. They are affordable and everyone should own one anyway. The beauty of this is that you will use this unit whether your power goes off or not. Take it with you on trips for peace of mind.

My story:

I bought 2 of these battery units years ago as gifts for relatives but did not buy one for myself, duh. One of the relatives has used the unit many times to jump a dead battery. As fate would have it, a few years later I was stopped at a fast food restaurant many miles from home and my car would not start. Fortunately a man in a pickup truck parked beside of me had one of these units and I was able to start my car. Needless to say, I bought a battery pack. Sometime after that the lightbulb came on in my head. I owned a power inverter and had a need to run a power tool at a site with no electricity. I ran a reciprocating saw from the inverter connected to a car battery.

Since I discovered the simplicity and low cost of this solution, I consider it one of the biggest “no brainers” in the world. Ok, we all need the battery packs if we drive a car. Even a smal linverter can be useful in our everyday lives. I own a small one that I keep in the car for trips. It powers my laptop computer and has a capacity of 100 watts.”….Read more

“16:8 Then the fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was
permitted to scorch people with fire.

16:9 Thus people were scorched by the terrible heat, yet they blasphemed
the name of God, who has ruling authority over these plagues, and they
would not repent and give him glory.”
Revelation 16

Here is what we know:

 

The Mayan Calendar ends on December 21, 2012.

The Earth’s magnetic fields shift periodically.

NASA scientists indicate that the next solar cycle will peak in 2012.

NASA scientists believe the next solar cycle will be significantly more intense.

Solar flares shut down electricity to 6 million people in Canada in 1989 damaging
electrical equipment.

Holes have developed in the Earth’s magnetosphere.

We have never had a solar flare cycle coincide with a solar system alignment with
the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy in recorded history.

 

Why we may have a real problem by December 21, 2112

  

Earth Magnetosphere problems

NASA article dated December 16, 2008:
“A Giant Breach in Earth’s Magnetic Field”

“Dec. 16, 2008: NASA’s five THEMIS spacecraft have discovered a breach in Earth’s
magnetic field ten times larger than anything previously thought to exist. Solar
wind can flow in through the opening to “load up” the magnetosphere for powerful
geomagnetic storms. But the breach itself is not the biggest surprise. Researchers
are even more amazed at the strange and unexpected way it forms, overturning
long-held ideas of space physics.

“At first I didn’t believe it,” says THEMIS project scientist David Sibeck of the
Goddard Space Flight Center. “This finding fundamentally alters our understanding
of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction.””
“”The opening was huge—four times wider than Earth itself,” says Wenhui Li, a
space physicist at the University of New Hampshire who has been analyzing the
data. Li’s colleague Jimmy Raeder, also of New Hampshire, says “1027 particles
per second were flowing into the magnetosphere—that’s a 1 followed by 27 zeros.
This kind of influx is an order of magnitude greater than what we thought was
possible.”

The event began with little warning when a gentle gust of solar wind delivered a
bundle of magnetic fields from the Sun to Earth. Like an octopus wrapping its
tentacles around a big clam, solar magnetic fields draped themselves around the
magnetosphere and cracked it open. The cracking was accomplished by means of a
process called “magnetic reconnection.” High above Earth’s poles, solar and
terrestrial magnetic fields linked up (reconnected) to form conduits for solar
wind. Conduits over the Arctic and Antarctic quickly expanded; within minutes
they overlapped over Earth’s equator to create the biggest magnetic breach ever
recorded by Earth-orbiting spacecraft.”
“The size of the breach took researchers by surprise. “We’ve seen things like this
before,” says Raeder, “but never on such a large scale. The entire day-side of the
magnetosphere was open to the solar wind.”

The circumstances were even more surprising. Space physicists have long believed
that holes in Earth’s magnetosphere open only in response to solar magnetic fields
that point south. The great breach of June 2007, however, opened in response to a
solar magnetic field that pointed north.

“To the lay person, this may sound like a quibble, but to a space physicist, it is
almost seismic,” says Sibeck. “When I tell my colleagues, most react with
skepticism, as if I’m trying to convince them that the sun rises in the west.””
“The years ahead could be especially lively. Raeder explains: “We’re entering Solar
Cycle 24. For reasons not fully understood, CMEs in even-numbered solar cycles
(like 24) tend to hit Earth with a leading edge that is magnetized north. Such a
CME should open a breach and load the magnetosphere with plasma just before the
storm gets underway. It’s the perfect sequence for a really big event.””….Read more

Solar activity affecting Earth

Solar Wind
“The solar wind streams off of the Sun in all directions at speeds of about 400
km/s (about 1 million miles per hour). The source of the solar wind is the Sun’s
hot corona. The temperature of the corona is so high that the Sun’s gravity cannot
hold on to it. Although we understand why this happens we do not understand
the details about how and where the coronal gases are accelerated to these high
velocities. This question is related to the question of coronal heating.

The solar wind is not uniform. Although it is always directed away from the Sun,
it changes speed and carries with it magnetic clouds, interacting regions where
high speed wind catches up with slow speed wind, and composition variations. The
solar wind speed is high (800 km/s) over coronal holes and low (300 km/s)
over streamers. These high and low speed streams interact with each other and
alternately pass by the Earth as the Sun rotates. These wind speed variations
buffet the Earth’s magnetic field and can produce storms in the Earth’s
magnetosphere.”….Read more

Solar Flares
“Solar flares are tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun. In a matter
of just a few minutes they heat material to many millions of degrees and release
as much energy as a billion megatons of TNT. They occur near sunspots, usually
along the dividing line (neutral line) between areas of oppositely directed
magnetic fields.

Flares release energy in many forms – electro-magnetic (Gamma rays and X-rays),
energetic particles (protons and electrons), and mass flows. Flares are
characterized by their brightness in X-rays (X-Ray flux). The biggest flares are
X-Class flares. M-Class flares have a tenth the energy and C-Class flares have a
tenth of the X-ray flux seen in M-Class flares. The National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the X-Ray flux from the Sun with
detectors on some of its satellites. Observations for the last few days are
available at NOAA’s website for Today’s Space Weather.”….Read more

Coronal Mass Ejections
“Coronal mass ejections (or CMEs) are huge bubbles of gas threaded with magnetic
field lines that are ejected from the Sun over the course of several hours.
Although the Sun’s corona has been observed during total eclipses of the Sun for
 thousands of years, the existence of coronal mass ejections was unrealized until
the space age. The earliest evidence of these dynamical events came from
observations made with a coronagraph on the 7th Orbiting Solar Observatory
(OSO 7) from 1971 to 1973. A coronagraph produces an artificial eclipse of the
Sun by placing an “occulting disk” over the image of the Sun. During a natural
eclipse of the Sun the corona is only visible for a few minutes at most, too
short a period of time to notice any changes in coronal features. With ground
based coronagraphs only the innermost corona is visible above the brightness of
the sky. From space the corona is visible out to large distances from the Sun
and can be viewed continuously. The animated sequence of images at the top of
this page were obtained with the High Altitude Observatory’s coronagraph on the
Solar Maximum Mission in April of 1980.

Coronal Mass Ejections disrupt the flow of the solar wind and produce disturbances
that strike the Earth with sometimes catastrophic results. The Large Angle and
Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
(SOHO) has observed a large number of CMEs. The event of April 7th, 1997 is shown
to the left (click on the image for the animation). It produced a “halo event”
in which the entire Sun appeared to be surrounded by the CME. Halo events are
produced by CMEs that are directed toward the Earth. As they loom larger and
larger they appear to envelope the Sun itself.”….Read more

Solar activity effects on ground Earth
“Although satellites are on the front line, if there is a powerful surge in
energetic particles entering the atmosphere, we may feel the adverse effects
down here on Earth too. Due to the X-ray generation of electrons in the
ionosphere, some forms of communication may become patchy (or be removed all
together), but this isn’t all that can happen. Particularly in high-latitude
regions, a vast electric current, known as an “electrojet”, may form through
the ionosphere by these incoming particles. With an electric current comes a
magnetic field. Depending on the intensity of the solar storm, currents may be
induced down here on the ground, possibly overloading national power grids.
On March 13th 1989, six million people lost power in the Quebec region of
Canada after a huge increase in solar activity caused a surge from ground-
induced currents. Quebec was paralysed for nine hours whilst engineers worked
on a solution to the problem.”….Read more

Disruption of Communications
“Navigation, power and communications systems that rely on GPS satellite
navigation will be disrupted by violent solar activity in 2011, research shows.

A study reveals Global Positioning System receivers to be unexpectedly
vulnerable to bursts of radio noise produced by solar flares, created by
explosions in the Sun’s atmosphere.

When solar activity peaks in 2011 and 2012, it could cause widespread
disruption to aircraft navigation and emergency location systems that rely
heavily on satellite navigation data.”….Read more

Cyclical flip of Earth’s magnetic fields
“Is the Earth’s magnetic field about to flip?

Posted on: February 5, 2009 6:02 PM, by Chris Rowan”

“It’s fairly common knowledge that the Earth’s magnetic field periodically
reverses its polarity. At the moment, magnetic field lines run from the
south pole to the north pole, and point up in the southern hemisphere and
down in the northern hemisphere, as in the figure on the left below. But at
many points in the past, the field lines (and compasses, if they’d been
invented) pointed south, and, as the figure on the right below shows, were
directed upwards in the northern hemisphere and downwards in the southern
hemisphere.

Rocks record the direction of the ambient magnetic field as they form,
allowing us to reconstruct the history of these reversals. In the next
figure, periods when the field is “normal” (the same as the present day) are
in black, and periods when it is in the opposite, “reversed” polarity are in
white. The field last flipped over about 780,000 years ago (0.78 million
years); previous reversals occurred about 0.99, 1.07, 1.19, 1.2, 1.77 and
1.95 miilion years ago.”

“You can’t help but notice that the typical period between the reversals in
the last couple of million years is a lot less than 780,000 years, which is
why you might hear talk about us being ‘overdue’ a reversal. Is this true?
When can we next expect the field to reverse? And should we care if it does?”
….Read more

 

Here is another scientific report that may blow prevailing theories about
global warming out of the water.
“Galactic Cosmic Rays May Be Responsible For The Antarctic Ozone Hole

The Antarctic Ozone Hole is said to be caused only by Chlorofluorocarbons
(CFC’s). According to this new study, perhaps not.”

“Here is a new paper of interest just published in Physical Review Letters.”

Correlation between Cosmic Rays and Ozone Depletion

Q.-B. Lu
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON,
N2L 3G1, Canada

Abstract:

This Letter reports reliable satellite data in the period of 1980–2007
covering two full 11-yr cosmic ray (CR) cycles, clearly showing the
correlation between CRs and ozone depletion, especially the polar ozone
loss (hole) over Antarctica. The results provide strong evidence of the
physical mechanism that the CR driven electron-induced reaction of
halogenated molecules plays the dominant role in causing the ozone hole.
Moreover, this mechanism predicts one of the severest ozone losses in
2008–2009 and probably another large hole around 2019–2020, according to
the 11-yr CR cycle.”

Read more:

http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/03/26/galactic-cosmic-rays-may-be-responsible-for-the-antarctic-ozone-hole/

The question remains to be answered. With a depletion of the Ozone layer
over Antartica and anticipated large increases in solar flares in 2012,
what can we expect from this combination?

Do you still believe that the coming years leading
to December 21, 2012 are no cause for concern?


From a NASA-funded study by the National Academy of Sciences dated January 21, 2009:

“January 21, 2009: Did you know a solar flare can make your toilet stop working?

That’s the surprising conclusion of a NASA-funded study by the National Academy of Sciences entitled Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts. In the 132-page report, experts detailed what might happen to our modern, high-tech society in the event of a “super solar flare” followed by an extreme geomagnetic storm. They found that almost nothing is immune from space weather—not even the water in your bathroom.”

“The problem begins with the electric power grid. “Electric power is modern society’s cornerstone technology on which virtually all other infrastructures and services depend,” the report notes. Yet it is particularly vulnerable to bad space weather. Ground currents induced during geomagnetic storms can actually melt the copper windings of transformers at the heart of many power distribution systems. Sprawling power lines act like antennas, picking up the currents and spreading the problem over a wide area. The most famous geomagnetic power outage happened during a space storm in March 1989 when six million people in Quebec lost power for 9 hours:”

quebec1989damage

“According to the report, power grids may be more vulnerable than ever. The problem is interconnectedness. In recent years, utilities have joined grids together to allow long-distance transmission of low-cost power to areas of sudden demand. On a hot summer day in California, for instance, people in Los Angeles might be running their air conditioners on power routed from Oregon. It makes economic sense—but not necessarily geomagnetic sense. Interconnectedness makes the system susceptible to wide-ranging “cascade failures.””

“To estimate the scale of such a failure, report co-author John Kappenmann of the Metatech Corporation looked at the great geomagnetic storm of May 1921, which produced ground currents as much as ten times stronger than the 1989 Quebec storm, and modeled its effect on the modern power grid. He found more than 350 transformers at risk of permanent damage and 130 million people without power. The loss of electricity would ripple across the social infrastructure with “water distribution affected within several hours; perishable foods and medications lost in 12-24 hours; loss of heating/air conditioning, sewage disposal, phone service, fuel re-supply and so on.”

“The concept of interdependency,” the report notes, “is evident in the unavailability of water due to long-term outage of electric power–and the inability to restart an electric generator without water on site.””

gridinterdependency

“Above: What if the May 1921 superstorm occurred today? A US map of vulnerable transformers with areas of probable system collapse encircled. A state-by-state map of transformer vulnerability is also available: click here. Credit: National Academy of Sciences.”

Read more:

 http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2009/21jan_severespaceweather.htm